Evaluating Automated Decision-Making in Higher Education
Artificial intelligence (AI) has entered the domain of college and university admissions. Institutions are increasingly adopting AI systems and automated decision-making to handle parts of the admissions process. Proponents argue AI can remove biases, increase efficiency, and improve candidate experiences. However, critics point to risks around fairness, transparency, and the loss of human judgment in evaluating applicants. Understanding the key benefits and drawbacks can help assess the responsible use of automation in higher education admissions.
Potential Benefits of Using AI in Admissions
Applying AI to the admissions process offers several potential advantages:
1. Mitigating Implicit Biases
Algorithms programmed to be objective could reduce some implicit human biases that unfairly impact applicants based on race, gender, or socioeconomic status. By focusing solely on relevant data points, AI may increase equity and diversity compared to subjective human evaluations prone to unconscious bias.
2. Improving Efficiency
AI can rapidly process vast amounts of application data at scale. Automating administrative tasks like verifying test scores, computing GPAs, and checking transcript information can accelerate review. This allows admissions staff more time for holistic evaluation of candidates.
3. Enhancing Personalization
Large datasets may enable AI systems to better predict student potential and engagement. Personalized communications and campus recommendations tailored to each applicant could improve experiences.
4. Detecting Fraud
Algorithms can identify inconsistencies and suspicious patterns to flag potentially fraudulent applications for further review. This helps uphold integrity in the process.
5. Standardizing Evaluation
By assessing all applicants consistently on the same predetermined factors, AI could reduce variability across human reviewers evaluating candidates subjectively.
Potential Risks of Using AI in Admissions
However, AI also poses some significant risks and challenges:
1. Lack of Transparency
“Black box” algorithms make decisions without explanations, undermining due process. Applicants cannot understand unfair or mistaken outcomes.
2. Perpetuating Historical Biases
AI systems reflect training data biases, which may perpetuate discrimination. Protected characteristics could also be predicted from other data to discriminate unlawfully.
3. Undermining Holistic Review
Over-reliance on automation could reduce nuanced human evaluation of applicants as multidimensional individuals with experiences that shape campus contributions.
4. Questionable Predictive Validity
AI models developed from past admission data may have uncertain accuracy for future applicants if relationships between variables weaken over time.
5. Explainability Challenges
Interpreting and explaining AI results pose difficulties for admissions staff, hindering communication with applicants. Lack of understanding could erode trust in the process.
Implementing AI Responsibly
If applied carefully, AI could enhance parts of the admissions process. Here are some best practices for institutions:
- Use AI sparingly to supplement human review
- Audit algorithms for biases and improve them continually
- Maintain transparency through clear communication of capabilities
- Allow applicants visibility into data profiles and ability to appeal decisions
- Validate predictive accuracy regularly on updated applicant pools
- Train admissions staff to interpret AI outputs responsibly
By combining automation with human oversight thoughtfully, colleges can utilize AI in admissions while prioritizing fairness and transparency.
The Bottom Line
AI holds potential benefits for admissions like increased efficiency and reduced bias, but also risks surrounding transparency and fairness. Responsible implementation that balances automation with human judgment can allow colleges to enhance parts of the process while upholding educational values.
With careful oversight and validation, selective use of AI in admissions may benefit both institutions and applicants. But more research is needed to develop transparent tools that align with ethical principles of equity and justice.
Colleges should continually assess AI systems to ensure they reflect institutional values of personal development, diversity, and equitable access. If designed and used responsibly, AI could become an asset to admissions practices. But it also risks undermining human decision-making in ways counter to higher education ideals. Navigating this tension thoughtfully will be key as more institutions consider embracing automation.